четверг, 24 января 2013 г.

6. Maqams. Sharon Plain and Carmel

Maqam Sheikh Mas‘ud
مقام الشيخ مسعود
קבר שייח' מסעוד

About Khirbet el-Jelameh C. Conder says: "A small domed building stands in the ruins" (SWP II 197). If he was talking about Maqam Sheikh Mas'ud, we should say that now this construction is a whole, thoroughly restored. However, nowadays only the back side of the maqam is visible. In front of the entrance, right next to the maqam, was built a shop for residents of Jalame – a Bedouin village to the south of Tayibe.

Route. Drive along the Highway 444, one kilometer short of Tayibe take the left turn into the Bedouin village Jalame and search for the old cemetery. The Maqam of Sheikh Mas'ud his is situated among the tombstones. The exact location see on my map.

Visited: 04.08.12
Location of the object on Google Maps
References: SWP II 197; Palmer 1881, 191 (Sheet XI); Stewardson 1888, 139

Maqam Sheikh Musharraf
مقام الشيخ مشرف
קבר שייח' מושרף

On the map of Palestine Exploration Fund (Sheet XI) this maqam is called Sheikh Mesherraf, on the British map of 1941 – Sh. Musharif. These names are represented in the current Hebrew name of it: שייח' מושרף. E. Palmer translated: Sheikh Mesherraf – "honoured" (1881, 191). The maqam dates back to the Ottoman period. For the residents of the nearby Palestinian village al-Majdal he was a local saint.

The maqam (5.04 x 5.15 x 3.10 m) was built on the ruins of a Byzantine church, which in its turn had been built on the ruins of the Samaritan synagogue dating back to the 5th century AD. Some of the Byzantine columns became the elements of a Muslim shrine. The cenotaph remained in the maqam but a mihrab is lost. There are the traces of the previous buildings: three Samaritan ritual baths (mikvaot), and Byzantine fragments of columns, mosaics, a wine press and a columbarium. Moreover, archaeologists discovered the remains of a small Muslim cemetery around the maqam (Reports 1994, 14).

Plan of the excavation. From Reports
In 2005, the tomb was thoroughly reconstructed by Muslims: the walls were erected again with the use of cement, the dome painted green, the cenotaph also covered with a green cloth. After all these manipulation the maqam of Sheikh Musharraf and the tomb of Prophet Sawarka, located near Kfar Saba (see Section 2 Tombs of the Prophets), look very much alike. The impression is that in both places the same hands were working. Both tombs have identical lintels above the entrances; both painted green. Finally, small square hollows in the internal walls for icon lamps or lanterns, indicates the identity of the two shrines.

View from the north

View from the south-east


The cenotaph

In modern Israel there is an anecdote about Sheikh Musharraf: "By the way, the Sheikh buried here was known as Sheikh Mansur. Where does the name Sheikh Mushraf found on maps come from? British land surveyors from the Palestine Exploration Fund were aided by a resident of the neighboring Arab village of Tayibe. When they asked him for the name of the grave of the Sheikh, he said, "Mush araf" ("I don’t know"). One of the surveyors put the name Musharaf in his notes and that’s how it appeared on the maps of Palestine — Eretz Israel — and still does to this very day".

That is what the Israeli guidebooks say. Of course, this is just a funny story. No tomb of Sheikh Mansur was ever in this area.

Route. From Highway 444 turn to the Highway 5533 and keep straight forward along the last road between the settlement Tzur Yitzhak and Tzur Natan moshav, on the left (north) side.

Visited: 04.08.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Palmer 1881, 191 (Sheet XI); Stewardson 1888, 139; Magen 2002, 429–430; Preliminary Report on the Excavations at Zur Natan, Israel. 1990; Reports on the Excavations at Zur Natan, Israel. 1994
Wikipedia: Tzur Natan; INature: Tzur Natan Park

Maqam Sheikh Shams el-Din el-Aiubi
مقام الشيخ شمس الدين
קבר שייח' שמס אל-דין אל-איובי

The maqam is located on the territory of the protected cemetery, but if you solemnly declare to the Arab guards that you’ve come to worship the shrine, they’ll let you in. Almost nothing remained from the ancient tomb. Only on the four corners of the maqam on a certain height remained some stonework, but it is restored. Maqam wasn’t fully restored due to the lack of money or some other reasons. They confined themselves to placing an iron cabinet with a door and a window above the cenotaph inside the tomb. A. Petersen in 1991 saw the tomb in the same condition, though he doesn’t state the Sheikh’s name (2001, 180).

The tomb of Sheikh Shams el-Din el-Aiubi is highly honoured by the residents of the Arab village Jaljulia who take care of it. In the list of the landmarks of Jaljulia this maqam is on an important place. Another place of interest is the mosque of Sheikh Abu al-‘Awn (see Section 14 Abandoned Mosques: Mosque of Abu l-' Awn).

View from the north

View from the south-west

View from the south

In front of the tomb

Route. From Highway 444 turn on the road leading to Jaljulia, a little short of the village turn right (to the south) on the asphalt-paved road, and in 500 meters you’ll reach the protected cemetery.

Visited: 02.08.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Palmer 1881, 245 (Sheet XIV); Petersen 2001, 179–180; The Archaeological Survey of Israel

2 комментария:

  1. These historical places reminds us of our ancestors and their historical living. These places should be preserved properly and looked after by the authorities for the coming generations to see what their ancestors used to have.